Children

Strengthening Paediatric TB and HIV Case Finding at the Frontline: TB/HIV Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM)

Community and primary health facility platforms have been recognized as important, but under-utilized entry points to address the large prevention, case detection and treatment gaps faced by young children with TB and/or HIV. In 2014, WHO and UNICEF revised community health worker packages for integrated community case management (iCCM) targeting children under five years of age, to include screening and referral for TB and HIV (TB/HIV iCCM). As part of an integrated, child-centered approach, TB/HIV iCCM is recommended for use in high TB and HIV burden settings.

Developed by UNICEF and Save the Children, Lessons from the Field (Uganda, Nigeria, Malawi) and Guidance (under development) are available for download.

Improving HIV Service Delivery for Infants, Children and Adolescents: Towards a framework for collective action

In June 2019, UNICEF convened a group of about 40 global experts from 24 organizations and institutions to advance the collective thinking on paediatric HIV service delivery. The aim of this “think tank” consultation was to build consensus on the specific programme interventions that need to be scaled up to improve the quality of HIV treatment services and reach more infants, children and adolescents with these lifesaving medicines.

Participating organizations included:

Aidsfonds
Africaid-Zvandiri
African Network for the Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS
(ANECCA)
Baylor College of Medicine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI)
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF)
ELMA Philanthropies
Health Innovations Kenya
FHI 360
ICAP at Columbia University
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Kenya Ministry of Health
Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
Pact
Pediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA)
Positive Action for Children Fund (PACF) / ViiV Healthcare
Réseau Enfants et VIH en Afrique (EVA)
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
University of Nairobi
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
World Health Organization (WHO)
World Council of Churches – Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance (WCC–EAA)
Yale University

Experts addressed the gaps in the continuum of care which are causing children to be missed before they are tested, before they are given their test results and before they are provided with lifelong treatment and care. Read more about the evidence base and the call for action in the brief above.

Paediatric Service Delivery Framework


The paediatric service delivery framework presents strategies to address bottlenecks across the continuum of care for each population: infants, children and adolescents. This includes keeping mothers who receive interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and their infants in care; locating missing infants, children and adolescents through family and index testing; linking those diagnosed with HIV to services; treating them with efficacious regimens and retaining them on treatment to achieve viral suppression. It describes comprehensive and targeted service delivery models, which emphasize strong linkages between testing, treatment and care, and between communities and facilities.

The framework was developed by a group of global experts who were convened by UNICEF in June 2019 to advance the collective thinking on paediatric HIV service delivery. The partnership's analysis of current evidence and specific programme interventions that need to be scaled up to improve the quality of HIV treatment services and reach more infants, children and adolescents with these lifesaving medicines is presented here.

The full framework, policy briefs and supporting worksheets are available for download (updated July 2020).

New Horizons Disclosure of HIV Status Toolkit for Pediatric and Adolescent Populations

This toolkit was developed by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) with funding from a consulting agreement with Johnson & Johnson, in support of the New Horizons Advancing Pediatric HIV Care Collaborative. 

The Disclosure of HIV Status Toolkit for Pediatric and Adolescent Populations provides general guidance on disclosure of HIV status in pediatric and adolescent HIV care. This document contains tools for use in clinical practice to build the capacity of health care workers, caregivers, and pediatric and adolescent patients themselves—in assisting with and delivering successful and informed disclosure. It is primarily targeted for use among health care workers.

Specific modules support:

  • Health care workers or caregivers to disclose an HIV status to a child or adolescent.
  • Horizontally-infected adolescents to disclose their status to their caregivers.
  • Adolescents to disclose to their social networks, community, and romantic partners.

Find out more at the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) website

WHO Policy Brief: 2018 optimal formulary and limited-use list for paediatric ARVs

The WHO 2018 guideline update promotes the use of optimal treatment regimens in all populations. Though new, more effective and better tolerated options with a higher genetic barrier to resistance are now available for adults, optimized treatment options for children lag significantly behind.

This fifth edition of the Optimal Formulary and Limited-use List supports the transition to optimal WHO-recommended regimens for infants and children, while giving due consideration to the rapidly evolving treatment landscape and the risks inherent in the uncertain timelines for paediatric drug development.

CSWG Policy Brief: Preventing and treating tuberculosis among children living with HIV

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV (CLHIV), particularly in TB endemic settings. TB in CLHIV is a
preventable and treatable disease. WHO recommends a cascade of TB services for all CLHIV that begins with routine screening for TB symptoms and/or recent contact with an infectious TB case. It would end with either; 1) diagnosis of active TB disease and prompt initiation of TB treatment, or 2) exclusion of active TB disease and prompt initiation of TB preventive therapy (TPT). Prompt, appropriate treatment for active TB disease is effective in CLHIV.

Similarly, TPT (such as isoniazid preventive therapy) is effective in preventing TB disease and reducing mortality in CLHIV. Effectiveness of both TPT and TB treatment is maximized when CLHIV receive early antiretroviral therapy (ART) to manage HIV infection. However, implementation of these evidence-based interventions to treat and prevent TB in CLHIV remains poor.

This is part of a series of 12 policy briefs by the Child Survival Working Group on scaling up key interventions for children and adolescents living with HIV. Learn more.

CSWG Policy Brief: Scaling up optimal antiretroviral treatment for children: A long overdue intervention

To achieve an AIDS-free generation, optimal treatment options for all infants and young children living with HIV must be available, tolerable and most importantly, effective. Since 2013, the WHO has recommended that all infants and children under three years initiate ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based regimens. However, the transition to preferred pediatric regimens has been slow, and one-third of children remain on a sub-optimal regimen of zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP).

Only 20 percent receive the WHO preferred regimen despite resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) becoming a major concern for infants and young children. While efavirenz (EFV) is increasingly used, NVP-based regimens are also very common in children older than three years. As a result, overall virological suppression reported in program settings continues to be sub-optimal and particularly poor in young children below five years.

This is part of a series of 12 policy briefs by the Child Survival Working Group on scaling up key interventions for children and adolescents living with HIV. Learn more.