WHO

Principes directeurs internationaux sur l'éducation à la sexualité

L’éducation complète à la sexualité (ECS)1 est primordiale pour préparer les jeunes à une vie sûre, productive et épanouissante dans un monde où le VIH et le SIDA, les infections sexuellement transmissibles (IST), les grossesses non désirées, la violence basée sur le genre et les inégalités entre les sexes continuent de présenter des risques graves pour leur bien-être. Cependant, bien que les bienfaits d’une ECS de qualité fondée sur le programme scolaire aient été montrés de manière claire et irréfutable, peu d’enfants et de jeunes sont dotés des moyens de prendre le contrôle de leur vie et de faire, librement et de façon responsable, des choix éclairés concernant leur sexualité et leurs relations interpersonnelles.

Nombreux sont ceux qui, entrant dans l’âge adulte, ont entendu des messages contradictoires, négatifs et déroutants sur la sexualité, messages bien souvent exacerbés par la gêne et le silence des adultes, notamment des parents et des enseignants. Dans bien des sociétés, les attitudes et les lois découragent le débat public sur la sexualité et le comportement sexuel, et les normes sociales peuvent perpétuer des situations préjudiciables, telles que l’inégalité des genres dans le contexte des relations sexuelles, de la planification familiale et de l’utilisation de contraceptifs modernes.

International technical guidance on sexuality education: an evidence-informed approach

Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) plays a central role in the preparation of young people for a safe, productive, fulfilling life in a world where HIV and AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancies, gender-based violence (GBV) and gender inequality still pose serious risks to their well-being. However, despite clear and compelling evidence for the benefits of high-quality, curriculum-based CSE, few children and young people receive preparation for their lives that empowers them to take control and make informed decisions about their sexuality and relationships freely and responsibly.

Countries are increasingly acknowledging the importance of equipping young people with the knowledge and skills to make responsible choices in their lives, particularly in a context where they have greater exposure to sexually explicit material through the Internet and other media.

Validation Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Syphilis

This governance guidance provides clarity, consistency and detail related to the structure, function, composition and operational duties of validation committees at national, regional and global levels as an extension to what is provided in the Global guidance on the criteria and processes for validation: elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. In addition, this publication describes the standardized methods for country programme review and validation of EMTCT of HIV and syphilis and PTE at these levels.

Elimination Mother-to-Child Transmission off HIV and Syphilis

This guidance document provides standardized processes and consensus-developed criteria to validate EMTCT of HIV and syphilis, and to recognize high-HIV burden countries that have made significant progress on the path to elimination. The guidance places strong emphasis on country-led accountability, rigorous analysis, intensive programme assessment and multilevel collaboration, including the involvement of communities of women living with HIV. It provides guidance to evaluate the country’s EMTCT programme, the quality and accuracy of its laboratory and data collection mechanisms, as well as its efforts to uphold human rights and equality of women living with HIV, and their involvement in decision-making processes.

Actions for improved clinical and prevention services: Preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among women and girls using contraceptive services in contexts with high HIV incidence

This programmatic brief explores how to expand HIV and STI prevention and contraceptive method options in contraceptive services and, thus, to reduce HIV and STI incidence among adolescent girls and women. It focuses on settings with extremely high HIV prevalence and incidence. The brief complements existing guidance on HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), amplifies calls for action and outlines more comprehensive approaches to integration of SRHR and HIV services. It also emphasizes the importance of SRHR for women living with HIV. It aligns with updated WHO recommendations for contraceptive eligibility for women at high risk of HIV and other HIV guidance for adolescent girls and young women.

This brief is for national programme leaders, experts and members of national working groups on HIV and STI prevention in the context of contraceptive services. It is primarily relevant in settings with very high HIV prevalence in East and Southern Africa, in other high HIV prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa and for women from key populations in other regions. At the same time, it proposes differentiated strategies for settings with low, medium, high and extremely high HIV prevalence among women.

Operational Guidance for National Roll-Out of Family HIV Testing in West and Central Africa

HIV testing and treatment remains low among children in West and Central Africa. Various barriers prevent the scale-up of services and improved coverage for children, including limited coverage of early infant diagnostic capacity, limited decentralization of pediatric treatment including task-shifting/sharing from paediatricians to nurses and community actors, as well as prevalent HIV stigma at individual, family and community levels. Family-based HIV index testing has been identified as a game changer that can deliver quick gains for the paediatric HIV response in both high- and low prevalence settings. By using an individual family member living with HIV as an entry point to reaching the entire family unit, several underlying factors can be addressed, which limit access to HIV testing services especially for children.

This operational guidance is meant for use by national programme managers, implementers, advocates and health care providers in collaboration with partners, supported by national, regional and global experts. The guidance draws off the experience in family testing from within and outside West and Central Africa. It combines recommendations from the Dakar Expert consultation, which took place in June 2018, as well as lessons learned from the pilot of the Family Testing Operational Guidance in Liberia in June 2018. It is a living document that will be enriched as evidence on family Testing in the region grows. The use of this guidance will be complemented by a toolkit and a community of practice. It is a regional document drafted for the countries in West and Central Africa to guide country teams to design country-contextualized family HIV testing roll-out.

International Technical and Programmatic Guidance on Out-of-School Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE)

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), with collaborating partners from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Secretariat of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), have developed this guidance to build upon and complement the UN International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education (ITGSE). It offers more in-depth programmatic guidance on how to develop CSE programmes that are appropriate and safe for different groups of children and young people, especially those who are unlikely to be addressed in CSE programmes for children and young people generally.

Available in English and Spanish.

Nurturing care for children affected by HIV

In the early years, we lay down critical elements for health, well-being and productivity, which last throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Failure to meet a child’s needs during this critical period limits the child’s ability to achieve their full developmental potential and threatens the future of human capital and society in general. This is particularly so for children affected by HIV who experience several interrelated factors that may hinder the achievement of a child’s full developmental potential.

This brief from UNICEF and WHO describes the specific nurturing care components for children affected by HIV as well as facility-level and community-level actions for early childhood development.