This report reviews advances made over the past year or so in four areas where HIV and AIDS affect children. It finds that most countries have made important gains in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and in paediatric treatment. Some countries have made progress towards HIV prevention goals,and more AIDS-affected children are benefiting from protection, care and support services. But much more remains to be done. The report also explains the need for improved norms, standards and guidelines to ensure effective implementation of programmes.